Potegavščine, miti in predsodki v znanosti: primer Pierra Trémauxa
Tvrtko-Matija Šercar

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The literature review is an integral part of research. The story of Pierre Trémaux (1818–1895) illustrates how factors, such as hoaxes, fabrications, untrue stories, myths and prejudice, which have nothing to do in science, difficulties in comprehending and accepting new scientific paradigms and also slow and geographically limited dissemination of scientific findings, which results in not being familiar with scientific findings and discoveries elsewhere in the world, are harmful for the ecology of scientific communication. Trémaux and his work are known only based on the correspondence between Karl Marx, who thought that Trémaux’s book was excellent, and Friedrich Engels, who was of the opinion that the book was bad. Trémaux is not included in any standard history of biology although, with his work, he anticipated some theories that others presented as theirs. This primarily refers to theories of punctuated equilibrium, phylogenetic tree, speciation and, consequently, the impact on race theories. From the methodological aspect, the main result of this presentation is the assumption that race theories are a sophisticated ideological means to justify hegemony, imperialism and colonialism, nationalism and discrimination of groups and individuals and other forms of unjust world order between nations, races and individuals in the past, at present and in the future, in the sense that some nations, races and individuals are better than others instead of contributing to the explanation of the differences between them without any judgement.

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Pierre Trémaux (1818–1895), bibliografski pregled, teorije ras

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Pregledovanje literature je neločljiv del raziskovalnega dela. Zgodba o Pierru Trémauxu (1818–1895) ponazarja, kako faktorji, kot so potegavščine, novinarske race, neresnične pripovedi, miti in predsodki, ki ne spadajo v znanost, težave pri dojemanju in sprejemanju novih znanstvenih paradigem ter tudi počasno in geografsko omejeno širjenje znanstvenih spoznanj in posledično neinformiranost o znanstvenih odkritjih drugje po svetu, škodijo ekologiji znanstvenega komuniciranja in informiranja. Trémaux in njegovo delo sta znana le na osnovi dopisovanja med Karlom Marxom (1818–1883), ki je mislil, da je knjiga imenitna, in Friedrichom Engelsom (1820–1895), ki je menil, da je knjiga slaba. Trémauxa ni v nobeni standardni zgodovini biologije, čeprav je s svojim delom predvidel nekatere teorije, ki so jih kot svoje predstavili drugi. Tu gre predvsem za teorije prekinjenega ravnotežja, filogenetsko drevo, speciacijo in posledično vpliv na teorije ras. Z metodološkega vidika naj bi bil glavni izsledek tega prikaza domneva, da so rasne teorije sofisticirano ideološko sredstvo za opravičevanje hegemonije, imperializma in kolonializma, nacionalizma in diskriminacije skupin in posameznikov ter drugih oblik krivičnega svetovnega reda med narodi, rasami in posamezniki v preteklosti, sedanjosti in prihodnosti, v smislu, da so nekatere nacije, rase in posamezniki boljši kot drugi, namesto da bi prispevale k pojasnjevanju razlik med njimi brez kakršnega koli vrednotenja.

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3. 12. 2019
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https://doi.org/10.3359/oz1924007
1924007
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